Deep learning artificial neural network techniques can be applied for on-orbit calibration of microwave and millimeter-wave radiometer space borne instruments, including those for small satellites. The noise-wave model has been employed for noise characterization and validation of the proposed deep learning calibration technique for a synthetically generated Dicke-switching radiometer. The developed deep learning neural network radiometer calibrator produces high accuracy estimates of antenna temperatures from the measurements of radiometer output voltage and thermistor readings. Tests with noise-free and noisy samples of the developed model have shown that the proposed calibration method does not add any significant noise to the radiometer calibration. The performance of the proposed method does not degrade with increased nonlinearity for a radiometer, while nonlinearity is a challenging issue for conventional calibration techniques. The deep learning calibration model learns the radiometer noise characteristics from radiometer prelaunch measurements during thermal vacuum chamber testing. The neural network calibrator proposed in this paper has self-learning capability during the on-orbit operation of a radiometer that can be used to improve the performance of on-orbit calibration. The proposed technique is demonstrated by comparing the residual uncertainty of the deep learning calibration with the theoretical value. No numerical study is presented to compare the performance with conventional calibration techniques. The new method may be solely applied to calibrate the radiometer or applied along with conventional calibration techniques.
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