With the advent of cloud computing, more and more people tend to outsource their data to the cloud. As a fundamental data utilization, secure keyword search over encrypted cloud data has attracted the interest of many researchers recently. However, most of existing researches are based on an ideal assumption that the cloud server is “curious but honest”, where the search results are not verified. In this paper, we consider a more challenging model, where the cloud server would probably behave dishonestly. Based on this model, we explore the problem of result verification for the secure ranked keyword search. Different from previous data verification schemes, we propose a novel deterrent-based scheme. With our carefully devised verification data, the cloud server cannot know which data owners, or how many data owners exchange anchor data which will be used for verifying the cloud server's misbehavior. With our systematically designed verification construction, the cloud server cannot know which data owners' data are embedded in the verification data buffer, or how many data owners' verification data are actually used for verification. All the cloud server knows is that, once he behaves dishonestly, he would be discovered with a high probability, and punished seriously once discovered. Furthermore, we propose to optimize the value of parameters used in the construction of the secret verification data buffer. Finally, with thorough analysis and extensive experiments, we confirm the efficacy and efficiency of our proposed schemes.
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