Visible light communication (VLC)-based indoor localization approaches enjoy many advantages, such as utilizingubiquitous lighting infrastructure, high location accuracy, and no interruption to RF-based devices. However, existing VLC-basedlocalization methods lack a real-time backward channel from the device to landmarks and necessitate computation at the device, whichmake them unsuitable for real-time tracking of small IoT devices. In this paper, we propose and prototype RETRO, that establishes analmost zero-delay backward channel by retroreflection. RETRO localizes passive IoT devices without requiring computation and heavysensing (e.g., camera) at the devices. Multiple photodiodes (i.e., landmarks) are mounted on any single unmodified light source to sensethe retroreflected optical signal (i.e., location signature). We derive a closed-form expression, which is validated by experiments and raytracing simulations, for the reflected optical power relative to the location and the orientation of the retroreflector. The expression isapplied to a received signal strength indicator and trilateration based localization algorithm. Extensive experiments demonstratecentimeter-level location accuracy and single-digit angular error. For practicality concern, to mitigate the thickness problem of a singleretroreflector, the capabilities of different retroreflector arrays are studied. The range of the localization system is theoreticallyevaluated for different light emission patterns.
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