In beam-based massive multiple-input multiple-output systems, signals are processed spatially in the radio-frequency (RF) front end and thereby the number of RF chains can be reduced to save hardware cost, power consumptions, and pilot overhead. Most existing work focuses on how to select or design analog beams to achieve performance close to full digital systems. However, since beams are strongly correlated (directed) to certain users, the selection of beams and scheduling of users should be jointly considered. In this paper, we formulate the joint user scheduling and beam selection problem based on the Lyapunov-drift optimization framework and obtain the optimal scheduling policy in a closed form. For reduced overhead and computational cost, the proposed scheduling schemes are based only upon statistical channel state information. Towards this end, asymptotic expressions of the downlink broadcast channel capacity are derived. To address the weighted sum rate maximization problem in the Lyapunov optimization, an algorithm based on block coordinated update is proposed and proved to converge to the optimum of the relaxed problem. To further reduce the complexity, an incremental greedy scheduling algorithm is also proposed, whose performance is proved to be bounded within a constant multiplicative factor. Simulation results based on widely-used spatial channel models are given. It is shown that the proposed schemes are close to optimal and outperform several state-of-the-art schemes.
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