Rapid advancements in computing, communication,sensing and actuation have seen the growth of IoT devices in ourdaily life. One of the fundamental constraints of a typical IoTdevice is energy as IoT devices rely on a battery. Therefore it iscrucial for their Operating System (OS) to be able to accuratelyaccount for system-wide energy usage. Specifically, the OS shouldbe able to attribute such accounted energy to the runningapplications accurately. Traditional OSes have limited capabilitywhen it comes to tracking components such as sensors, actuatorsand network interfaces, as they are often used in an asynchronousfashion. This would make it difficult to conduct energy accountingaccurately. This paper proposes a new mechanism to accuratelyaccount for the asynchronous energy usage of resources in mobilesystems and IoT devices. Our insight is that by accurately relatingthe application requests with kernel requests to device andcorresponding device responses, we can accurately attribute timeof use to the requesting process. However, resources such as WiFireception violate this assumption. In such cases, we can measureusage by the number of bytes in each individual transaction.Using such a hybrid approach, we can account for energy usagewith 94% accuracy and perform much better than using each ofthese models individually.
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