We present a privacy-preserving deep learning system in which many learning participants perform neural network-based deep learning over a combined dataset of all, without revealing the participants' local data to a central server. To that end, we revisit the previous work by Shokri and Shmatikov (ACM CCS 2015) and show that, with their method, local data information may be leaked to an honest-but-curious server. We then fix that problem by building an enhanced system with the following properties: 1) no information is leaked to the server and 2) accuracy is kept intact, compared with that of the ordinary deep learning system also over the combined dataset. Our system bridges deep learning and cryptography: we utilize asynchronous stochastic gradient descent as applied to neural networks, in combination with additively homomorphic encryption. We show that our usage of encryption adds tolerable overhead to the ordinary deep learning system.
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