In the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), data sharing amongvehicles is critical to improving driving safety and enhancing vehicularservices. To ensure security and traceability of data sharing,existing studies utilize efficient Delegated Proof-of-Stake consensusscheme as hard security solutions to establish blockchainenabledIoV (BIoV). However, as the miners are selected fromminer candidates by stake-based voting, defending against votingcollusion between the candidates and compromised high-stakevehicles becomes challenging. To address the challenge, in thispaper, we propose a two-stage soft security enhancement solution:(i) miner selection and (ii) block verification. In the first stage, wedesign a reputation-based voting scheme to ensure secure minerselection. This scheme evaluates candidates’ reputation usingboth past interactions and recommended opinions from othervehicles. The candidates with high reputation are selected to beactive miners and standby miners. In the second stage, to preventinternal collusion among active miners, a newly generated blockis further verified and audited by standby miners. To incentivizethe participation of the standby miners in block verification, weadopt the contract theory to model the interactions between activeminers and standby miners, where block verification security anddelay are taken into consideration. Numerical results based ona real-world dataset confirm the security and efficiency of ourschemes for data sharing in BIoV.
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