The cellular-based infrastructure is regarded as one of the potential solutions for massive Internet of Things (mIoT), where the random access (RA) procedure is used for requesting channel resources in the uplink data transmission. Due to the nature of the mIoT network with the sporadic uplink transmissions of a large amount of IoT devices, massive concurrent channel resource requests lead to a high probability of RA failure. To relieve the congestion during the RA in mIoT networks, we model RA procedure and analyze as well as evaluate the performance improvement due to different RA schemes, including power ramping (PR), back-off (BO), access class barring (ACB), hybrid ACB and back-off schemes, and hybrid power ramping and back-off (PR&BO). To do so, we develop a traffic-aware spatio-temporal model for the contention-based RA analysis in the mIoT network, where the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR) outage and collision events jointly determine the traffic evolution and the RA success probability. Compared to existing literature that only models collision from the single-cell perspective, we model both SINR outage and the collision from the network perspective. Based on this analytical model, we derive the analytical expression for the RA success probabilities to show the effectiveness of different RA schemes. We also derive the average queue lengths and the average waiting delays of each RA scheme to evaluate the packets accumulation status and packets serving efficiency. Our results show that our proposed PR&BO scheme outperforms other schemes in heavy traffic scenarios in terms of the RA success probability, the average queue length, and the average waiting delay.
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