The development of smart cities and the emergence of three-dimensional (3-D) urban terrain data have introduced new requirements and issues to the research on the 3-D deployment of wireless sensor networks. We study the deployment issue of heterogeneous wireless directional sensor networks in 3-D smart cities. Traditionally, studies on the deployment problem of WSNs focus on omnidirectional sensors on a 2-D plane or in full 3-D space. Based on 3-D urban terrain data, we transform the deployment problem into a multiobjective optimization problem, in which objectives of Coverage, Connectivity Quality, and Lifetime, as well as the Connectivity and Reliability constraints, are simultaneously considered. A graph-based 3-D signal propagation model employing the line-of-sight concept is used to calculate the signal path loss. Novel distributed parallel multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are also proposed. For verification, real-world and artificial urban terrains are utilized. In comparison with other state-of-the-art MOEAs, the novel algorithms could more effectively and more efficiently address the deployment problem in terms of optimization performance and operation time.
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