Fault diagnosis plays an important role in modern industry. With the development of smart manufacturing,the data-driven fault diagnosis becomes hot. However, traditional methods have two shortcomings: 1) their performances depend on the good design of handcrafted features of data, but it is difficult to pre design these features and 2) they work well under a general assumption: the training data and testing data should be drawn from the same distribution, but this assumption fails in many engineering applications. Since deep learning (DL) can extract the hierarchical representation features of raw data, and transfer learning provides a good way to perform a learning task on the different but related distribution datasets, deep transfer learning (DTL) has been developed for fault diagnosis. In this paper, a new DTL method is proposed. It uses a three-layer sparse auto-encoder to extract the features of raw data, and applies the maximum mean discrepancy term to minimizing the discrepancy penalty between the features from training data and testing data. The proposed DTL is tested on the famous motor bearing dataset from the Case Western Reserve University. The results show a good improvement, and DTL achieves higher prediction accuracies on most experiments than DL. The prediction accuracy of DTL, which is as high as 99.82%, is better than the results of other algorithms, including deep belief network, sparse filter, artificial neural network, support vector machine and some other traditional methods. What is more, two additional analytical experiments are conducted. The results show that a good unlabeled third dataset may be helpful to DTL, and a good linear relationship between the final prediction accuracies and their standard deviations have been observed.
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