The energy blockchain is a distributed Internetprotocol for energy transactions between nodes of a power system.Recent applications of the energy blockchain in microgridsonly consider the energy transactions between peers withoutconsidering the technical issues that can arise, especially whenthe system is islanded. One contribution of the paper is, thus, todepict a comprehensive framework of the technical and economicmanagement of microgrids in the blockchain era, considering,for the first time, the provision of ancillary services and, inparticular, of the voltage regulation service. When more PVnodes are operating in the grid, large reactive power flows mayappear in the branches. In order to limit such flows, a reactiveoptimal power flow (R-OPF) is solved, setting the voltage atthe PV buses as variables within prescribed limits. Each PVgenerator will thus contribute to voltage regulation, receiving aremuneration included in the transaction and certified by theblockchain technology. For showing how this system can work,a test microgrid, where some energy transactions take place,has been considered. For each transaction, the R-OPF assignsthe reactive power to the PV buses. The R-OPF is solved bya Glow-worm Swarm Optimizer. Finally, the paper proposesa method for remuneration of reactive power provision; thismethod, integrated into the blockchain, allows evaluating thecontribution to voltage regulation and increases the transparencyand cost traceability in the transactions. The application sectionshows the implementation of a Tendermint-based Energy transactionplatform integrating R-OPF and the above cited technicalassessments.
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